The Asian long-horned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is a member of the longhorn beetle family (Cerambycidae).
The Asian long-horned beetle (ALHB) is native to China and Korea, where it is considered a forest pest as well.
All known infestations in Canada are considered eradicated.
ALHB was first found in North America in New York City in 1996.
ALHB was accidentally introduced in to Canada via untreated shipping pallets.
ALHB was first found in Canada in 2003 in the Toronto area, where it was subsequently eradicated.
The last known outbreak occurred in 2013 in the cities of Mississauga and Toronto, both of which are considered under control.
There have been no ALHB-related regulatory areas in Canada since June 2020.
Infested areas in the United States include Massachusetts, New York, South Carolina, and Ohio.
When managing an invasive species, proper identification is your first step.
Several native beetle species look like ALHB. Native lookalikes include the Northern Pine Sawyer and Spotted Pine Sawyer.
If you have seen ALHB on PEI, the Prince Edward Island Invasive Species Council (PEIISC) wants to know about it.
Report any sightings to your local Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) office, as well as to the PEIISC.
Collect an insect specimen and take photographs to help experts identify the insect.
As most outbreaks have started in urban areas, city dwellers should check out any hardwood trees (particularly maples) on their property for signs of ALHB activity.
If you have a pool, check your filter regularly to see if any invasive insects like ALHB have been collected there.
The most common known host trees of ALHB in North America include:
Acer spp., Maple.
Aesculus spp., Horsechestnut.
Albizia spp., White Silk.
Betula spp., Birch.
Celtis spp., Hackberry.
Cercidiphyllum spp., Katsura.
Koelreuteria spp., Goldenrain.
Platanus spp., Plane or Sycamore.
Populus spp., Poplar.
Salix spp., Willow.
Sorbus spp., Mountain Ash.
Ulmus spp., Elm.
Firewood of all species.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
Evidence of ALHB appears as follows:
Dime-sized egg-laying pits scored into the outer bark layer.
Round exit holes that are slightly smaller than a dime.
Foamy sap oozing from egg-laying pits.
Loss of bark from larval feeding.
Rough sawdust piles where branch and stem meet.
Larval feeding galleries beneath the outer bark layer.
Vertical splitting in the bark, called “bark cracking”.
2-4 cm long.
Have shiny, black backs with irregular white patches.
Black and white banded antennae that are roughly 1-2 times the length of the body.
Females lay chew oval oviposition pits (about 10 mm wide) into the bark and lay a single egg in this cavity. Oviposition pits can occur from ground level up into the crown. Frothy, white sap may exude from recently created oviposition pits (Canadian Food Inspection Agency).
Adults create a small hole in trees when exiting, approximately 1 cm across.
Feed on leaves and twigs of host trees.
What it does in the ecosystem
It infests all deciduous trees, but prefers native maple species.
Infested trees will be gradually killed as the beetle reproduces over several years.
Entire forests of hardwoods can be effected and destroyed by this pest.
Infested trees will be of lower harvest quality as the wood is distorted by larvae feeding.
As the beetle prefers maple trees, it poses a threat to the lucrative Canadian maple syrup industry.
ALHB has not been detected in PEI to date.
Prevention and early detection are key to the management of this species.
Asian long-horned beetle (ALHB) is not currently found on Prince Edward Island, so efforts must be made to keep our trees safe from this invasive pest.
When traveling across provincial boundaries, avoid bringing firewood with you if possible.
ALHB has historically spread through the movement of contaminated wood products, so not transporting and inspecting transported wood is crucial in the fight against ALHB.
It is illegal to move firewood from within a CFIA-regulated infested area.
The “Don’t Move Firewood” campaign has placed bins at the two main vehicular entry points to PEI.
If you arrive on PEI with imported firewood, simply place the wood in the Don’t Move Firewood bin at either Wood Islands or Borden-Carleton.
You will receive a coupon for a free bundle of firewood which can be redeemed at any provincially-operated campground.
Wood deposited in the bins will be securely transported to PEI Energy Systems for incineration.
Check out these links for more information on our DON’T MOVE FIREWOOD! campaign.
Quick action is critical to stopping the spread of ALHB.
Management of outbreaks will be led by the CFIA based on past successful eradication efforts.
The CFIA recommends that all infested trees be cut down, chipped, and have their stumps ground up.
Chips should be no bigger than 15mm to ensure no larvae of ALHB can survive.
The CFIA then recommends that all potential hosts within an 800m radius of known infested trees be removed and disposed of in the same manner.
See the “host trees” section for a list of the species to be removed.
There are no insecticides registered in Canada proven to eradicate ALHB populations. In any case, chemical treatment would have to be undertaken by a professional.
The potential impacts on industry and ecosystems from this pest are too great to allow it to spread. Less invasive approaches such as the use of pheromone traps have proven ineffective.
After treatment, continue to monitor the area for any signs of ALHB. After five years of monitoring with no sign of ALHB presence in the area, regulatory measures may begin to be removed.
Replanting areas with native trees and shrubs resistant to ALHB attack can help prevent an infestation from reoccurring and increase local biodiversity. Studies on resistant trees and shrubs are few. Potentially resistant trees include:
Linden (the beetles lay eggs, but the larvae are unable to bore deeply into the tree and do not complete their life cycle).
Oaks (resistance appears to be effective only when more preferable hosts are available)
Careful research should be done before selecting a tree to plant. There are non-native species with potential resistance to ALHB, but it is important to ensure that the tree you select will not become invasive. Native species should be prioritized.